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Content Section

Teaching speaking, listening, and writing (Educational Practices 14)



Writing, speaking and listening are communication skills that are important in all subject areas in the curriculum. Hence, literacy should have a central position in the curriculum. Even so, differences between students’ levels of literacy mean that some students fail to acquire the verbal foundations for learning. For this reason, increasing numbers of students fall short of proficiency as they proceed through the school.

This booklet responds to calls for principles and teaching practices that address the worldwide problem of increasing literacy skills. It draws on educational research and extensive experience with classroom practices to explain important principles for increasing literacy. In contrast to reading, less definitive scientific research is available on the other three language skills discussed in this booklet. For this reason, the limited research is supplemented here with the insights of experts and educators with long and varied experience in the teaching of language skills.