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Teaching is the most immediate process for supporting learning and for enabling learners to acquire expected competencies. What happens within the classroom is of crucial importance for the quality of education 1. Research also shows that considering the profile of the teacher alone is not sufficient to determine what is really happening in the classroom 2: teachers and teaching are two separate, though closely interrelated, issues. Teaching and learning processes are not only crucial to education quality and to the effectiveness of learning experiences but also to equity of education quality and of learning. Individuals learn differently. They should be taught differently. For learners to reach their full potentials, teaching methods, approaches and assessment modalities must be well understood by those entrusted with teaching and those making decisions about education.

What research also underlines is that adaptability to context matters as different countries and students may need different teaching contents (both in terms of subject matter knowledge and of medium of instruction) and different levels of structure tailored to students’ profile. It is therefore important to critically assess the relevance of both current and planned objectives (in terms of the content, structure, and context of teaching) to the diverse contexts. What kind of teaching can be provided is shaped/constrained by the learner and the learning environment, the teacher and the teaching culture. Research shows, that countries which have been successful in improving their education system followed a number of general principles but also tailored their intervention to match the current situation of their education system (See:Common characteristics of good teaching practices).

The overall objective of this Analytical Tool [See Full Version for more details] is to support the analysis of how teaching processes contribute to the quality and equity of general education and to effective learning. The paramount question this analytical Tool raises is: Do our teaching processes facilitate or impede the attainment of quality education and effective learning experiences for all our learners? The probing of this paramount question is facilitated by posing some key questions regarding critical factors affecting and influencing teaching.

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