module provides opportunities to explore current developments in
curriculum design and to understand the central concepts involved
- Defining national curriculum standards.
- Defining curriculum outcomes, standards, competencies, objectives,
- Current approaches to curriculum integration, diversification
and differentiation with particular reference to the following
- Citizenship and/or values education and social transformation;
- Science and Technology Education (STE);
- School health and HIV and Aids prevention;
- Coping with emergency situations;
- Common or connected student learning outcomes.
- The principle and practice of curriculum design for Education
for Sustainable Development (ESD).
The curriculum professionals are guided into an analysis
of the building blocks of curriculum at the macro level, through
- The structure of a curriculum framework. Includes
the typical components of curriculum frameworks to be used as
a structural analysis tool.
- Formulation of what students should know and be able to do.
Helps the participant to revise and choose several alternatives
to define the expected achievements of students.
- Approaches to curriculum integration. Reviews
existing strategies for curriculum integration with different
focus and depth.
Following these activities is a “Resources”
section which contains a list of discussion papers and other resources
referred to in the activities, as well as a list of additional readings.
Many education systems across the world are moving away from centralized
models of curriculum decision-making towards more democratic, decentralized
models. As a result of this trend, decision-makers are considering
ways of organizing the curriculum in ways other than the traditional
subject approach in which all students learn the same content at
the same time. Increasingly curriculum is being structured in ways
- are appropriate to the needs and circumstances of regions and
- address more effectively the needs of students.
One example is the trend towards adopting curriculum
frameworks as overarching curriculum documents. The purpose of a
curriculum framework is to establish the parameters within which
curriculum should be developed. It often expresses the state’s
aims of education, and can define minimum standards for content
and assessment, as well as teacher qualifications, educational resources
and learning materials, management, and evaluation. Such a framework
is often approved by a competent authority as a first step in the
curriculum development process. The framework then provides guidelines
for the developers of more specific learning area syllabuses.
Another example of changing curriculum structures
is the remodeling of learning experiences of many separate subjects
into a more integrated content. This is because the compartmentalization
of knowledge into discrete subjects is antithetical to how students
experience life and the real world. Learning that is integrated
enables students to apply knowledge and skills more easily to their
daily lives. On a higher level, integrated content can be more readily
“internalized” and reflected in behaviour. Learning
then becomes integrated into the self and becomes a part of one’s
This module describes trends in curriculum development and illustrates
integrated learning through the examples of citizenship and social
transformation and science and technology, which can serve as models
for other types of integration.
Curriculum Design, Standards, Structure, Learning Areas, Subjects,
Contents, Scope, Sequence, Integration of Curriculum, Cross-curricular
Provision, Integrated Curriculum, Flexibility of Curriculum, Diversification,
Time Allocation, Learning Outcomes, Four Pillars-orientated Design,