Ressources BIE 

Curriculum Change And Social Cohesion In Conflict-Affected Societies: Case Studies

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Curriculum Development, Diversity and Division in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The first study, on Bosnia and Herzegovina, was developed by an international expert closely involved in establishing the inclusive consultative structures and mechanisms that led to the development of the Education Reform Strategy Paper in November 2002. Moreover, the study was prepared based on the in-country experience and expertise of the UNESCO field office in Sarajevo with which the author had been closely involved in providing technical advice for an unofficial core curriculum team representing the diverse educational authorities within the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Srpska.

Curriculum Change and Social Cohesion in Multicultural Guatemala

Prepared jointly by the national coordinator and the chief technical advisor for the Project to Mobilise Support for Mayan Education (PROMEM), the Guatemala study is embedded in the process of curriculum development for the inclusion of Mayan culture and language in the national Curriculum for Basic Education. The development of the study was part of a process of dialogue with key stakeholders in Guatemalan education and was thus linked to the work of the Consultative Commission for Education Reform and the Accompaniment Commission for Compliance with the Peace Accords.

Developing Curriculum as a Means to Bridging National Divisons in Lebanon

This study on Lebanon reviews the ways in which curriculum policy was framed during key moments in the historical development of schooling, including following the reestablishment of peace in the early 1990s after the end of fifteen years of civil war. This exploration into curriculum policy formulation and the issue of Lebanese identity, history, and sense of citizenship is presented by the former president (1999-2002) of the Educational Centre for Research and Development (ECRD), who was in charge of the Civics Education Project and the development of history curriculum in the postwar period.

Curriculum Reform, Political Change, and Reinforcement of National Identity in Mozambique

The Mozambican team was composed of three experts from the National Institute for the Development of Education (INDE) and the University Eduardo Mondlane in Maputo. The study focuses on the impact of a series of politico-ideological shifts in education policy “exploring the possible links between the experience of armed conflict, recent political change (…) and the reinforcement of national identity through curriculum change.” In addressing the “competitive co-existence” between the former colonial Portuguese language and the twenty-one indigenous languages, the chapter traces the ways in which language policies have attempted to define national cohesion. In doing so, the team reviewed official documentation produced by the Ministry of Education, interviewed a range of stakeholders involved in educational reform, and conducted a limited number of observations and interviews among students in a pilot school in Maputo.

Citizenship Education in a Divided Society: The case of Northern Ireland

The study on Northern Ireland, was developed as part of the ongoing evaluation work of the pilot Social, Civic and Political Education Project. Formerly director of the project at Ulster University, the author was also the principal officer at the Northern Ireland Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment. The study was supplemented by interviews with individuals from a range of organisations with both policy and academic orientations who have been involved in shaping or implementing education policy in relation to the conflict. Additionally, the study draws on existing research that explores the views of young people on the relevance of educational experiences in Northern Ireland with regard to the social and political environment of conflict.

Redefining Rwanda's Future: The role of curriculum in social reconstruction

In the case of Rwanda, the study “is part of the whole process of curriculum change and review underway” and the methodology used “is in line with the current process of educational policy development” in which the team of three from the National Curriculum Development Centre and the Kigali Institute of Education consulted with teachers, head teachers, students, Ministry of Education officials, donors, and representatives of religious groups. The study addresses two main questions: 1) What was taught in schools in the past, and how has that contributed to social divisions and conflict; and 2) What values should be taught in Rwandan schools to bring about social cohesion?

Education Reform and Political Violence in Sri Lanka

This study was prepared by three senior professionals who have been associated with the development of school and teacher education curriculum over the past three decades. The study focuses on the link between education reform and political violence in Sri Lanka. In attempting to present a comprehensive and balanced record and analysis of educational policy against the backdrop of twenty-five years of conflict, the authors accessed a wide range of studies and printed documents. They also consulted and interviewed relevant persons and authorities in order to document views on the way in which curriculum change may contribute to foster social cohesion and peace in the country.